When to Use Supra in Legal Citation

Since there is little time left, you will have to re-read the briefing and reconstruct what all these supras and identifiers actually refer to. A “supra” recalls a section on the floor of the editing room. A series of “id.at” quotes is meaningless because you have inserted new quotes between here and here and cut others, thus mutilating the order. The citations in the footnotes indicate “above footnote 35” for the original citation, but the abbreviations or insertions have moved this first reference to an earlier or later footnote, so that footnote 35 has nothing to do with the authority referenced. And the text reads more fluidly: “The circuit wondered in Guess if the backpack clause of the Blue Jeans Act applied to cuts, and then categorically confirmed that this was not the case when it was directly confronted with the problem in SpongeBob SquarePants. All judges and lawyers should be aware that these authorities have already been cited and that they should look in the table of authorities for the first reference and the full citation. The Blue Book points out that quotations in explanatory parentheses are ignored when “id.” and “id.” should not be used to designate a quotation that was part of a chain of two or more, as its use in both situations would cause confusion as to the intended reference. This legal article on a Latin phrase is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it. Thus, for the second, third and eighth references, use id. or supra, depending on the context. “Id.”, if it refers to the very last quote, and “supra”, if the authority was somewhere further back.

(“Ibid.” is an academic version of “id.” and is not even mentioned in the Bluebook.) In general, in-text references are used for memos and facts, while footnotes are used for other legal texts. I recently worked on a Supreme Court motion for printing, which said in footnote 30, “above footnote 30.” We had to ask the lawyer about the evidence sent in the afternoon of a day, requiring corrections (and probably a full review of the many other seemingly retrospective references to the pleading) the next morning to meet the court deadline. Someone`s plans for the evening were at least preliminary. Add the full citation to the case immediately after the corresponding text. If you want to address this case later, give the reader a short form in parentheses. This makes subsequent references much more concise. Ibid. is used when the above footnote refers to the same source.

Ibid can be used after another ibid or after a supra. The above is used when referring to the same source in a footnote that is not immediately above it. Or you might want to quickly remind the court of a whole section of the previous discussions, perhaps an entire paragraph or a piece of it, and use “supra” with a section heading or side panel to indicate it. In general, the empty term supra or v.s., often in parentheses, is simply used to refer the reader to the previous text. In this example, the second quote refers the reader to page 862 of the magazine in which Legatzke`s article appears. Use from above should be done carefully and only when the user fully understands its use, as it could be very confusing for readers if not used appropriately. Second, in the footnotes, there is never any reason to draw the court`s attention to the first footnote citing authority. You can use abbreviated or administrative cross-references in footnotes and text. Or, if you really want to insert a Latin word, a simple supra indicates a second reference after the short name, and the authorities table lists the page where the first reference appeared. If you cite a source multiple times, use ibid or supra after the first citation instead of repeating the full quote. Supra (Latin for “above”) is an academic and legal citation signal used when an author wants to refer a reader to a previously cited authority. For example, an author wishing to refer to a source in his third footnote would quote: See footnote 3 above.

Or for the text of this note: See above, text of footnote 3. You should be careful when moving the citation before the first full reference. When Cockle document analysts enter page numbers into the authority list, we often see a short form before a full citation – perhaps no full citation appears – and note evidence of the need for the full citation. Third, you can use “id.” or “id. to 333” to accurately cite the authority immediately preceding it. But be careful if you continue this ID string for more than a few paragraphs without a short reference to make it clear that the discussion is still focused on the same authority. And if another authority of any kind is in the middle of the identification chain, use a short form to unambiguously refer the discussion to the originating authority. First, avoid the word “supra” in the text altogether. Instead, a second reference to a case may be made to one of the parties` names, possibly with an abbreviated citation. (For example, flint, 1 U.S. to 3.) The short form implies that the full quote was given earlier, so “supra” is redundant. For a commonly used law, add an abbreviated form in parentheses after the first citation.

(e.g., (“Bedrock Act”).) The Supra decision can also be used to briefly quote an earlier (but not immediately earlier) authority. For example: The two most common forms of references in legal writing are in-text references and footnotes. The main difference between them is that references in the text are usually included in the text itself, while footnotes are given at the bottom of the page. Here`s how it might catch up with you and bite you at the end of the briefing and undermine your argument with inaccurate subsequent references. Given the kind of legal pressure that Cockle Legal Briefs exerts every day on pro-se lawyers and petitioners, I will use a petition from the U.S. Supreme Court to obtain a writ of certiorari or letter of opposition as an example: maybe you find out after you send in the draft, or maybe Cockle`s reviewers ask questions to get evidence. Maybe it`s blatant, or maybe it requires careful reading. But it turns out that some of these references to earlier quotes – perhaps many of them – no longer match. They stifle some inappropriate words in the office.

(Sooh-prah) Latin for “above”, in pleadings and decisions, it refers to the citation of a previously mentioned court decision. Therefore, when a case is cited first, it is called Guinn v. United States, (1915) 238 U.S. 347, meaning it is in volume 238 of the U.S. Reports (of the Supreme Court) at page 347 and was decided in 1915. Next time, the case will be cited as Guinn v. United States, supra. A client`s assignment was to quote and discuss different parts of a case, but then mentioned a law and followed a simple “piece of identification.” Was the authority for the latter part the case or the law? Unclear. It was even worse that even after a new title, the quotes were still just “id”. Then, a real confusion arose from a quote “id. to 150” which could not refer to the last case cited, because that case started at page 315. My best guess was that sections or blocks of text had been moved, so we asked the lawyer for clarification.

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